Regional Timeline

Wendats,  Genocide, & Proxy Wars

Background facts impacting the history of Mount Dennis and York

1452   Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting Afonso V of Portugal the right to reduce any “Saracens, pagans and any other unbelievers” to hereditary slavery, which legitimized the slave trade under Catholic beliefs of that time.

1493 Pope Alexander VI papal bull gives the New World to Spain, and Christians the right to displace non-Christians from their lands.

1517 Martin Luther publishes Ninety-Five Theses criticizing sale of Indulgences, Protestant Reformation begins,

1532 Machiavelli’s experience showed him that politics have always been played with deception, treachery and crime. He also notably said that a ruler who is establishing a kingdom or a republic, and is criticized for his deeds, including violence, should be excused when the intention and the result is beneficial. Machiavelli’s Prince is published to mixed reaction. Some considered it a straightforward description of the evil means used by bad rulers; others read in it evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power.

1538 Henry VIII seizes Catholic properties in Britain

French funded Catholic missionaries operate in North America a from 1611 – 1763, followed by a mix of Catholic and Protestant missionaries from 1763 to the present day.

Prior to 1636, New France’s Wendat people living in what was called New France were pressured to convert to Christianity in exchange for guns and trading rights.  This split the Wendat nation into Traditionalist and a favored Christian group.

1636 to 1640   About 2/3 of the total Wendat population dies of smallpox and other introduced diseases

1640      Poorly armed, fractured and depleted Wendat population is overrun by Haudenosaunee expansion, which was armed by New Amsterdam.  Wendat survivors disperse into Haudenosaunee and Wyandot communities

1665-1674  British Dutch wars, British replace Dutch in New Amsterdam

1675       Mississauga/Aanishinaabe and Haudenosaunee communities migrate into vacant Wendat territory

1719      Kahnawake established, a Christian segregated Haudenosaunee settlement at Montreal

1720      French Fort Douville established at top of Humber Bay (Baby Point)

1750      French Fort Toronto built at mouth of Humber

1754       French English hostilities, Acadian deportation to Louisianna

1756-63  Seven Year War Proxy war in North America, French support First Nations against British

1759      British replace French in Ontario, Plains of Abraham, Forts destroyed

1775-83    American Revolutionary War,  supported by France, British by Haudenosaunee

1763 British conquer French in New France, North West company takes over French fur trade via St Lawrence and Great Lakes, in competition with the Hudson’s Bay company.  Catholic church retains its influence in Quebec, but no longer has support from France.

1784       Forced migration of Haudenosaunee to Ontario

                United Empire Loyalist migration to Ontario

                Haldimand Grant to Haudenosaunee, 2M acres

1787       Toronto Purchase begins, Humber to Victoria Park but uses ill-defined survey, signatures missing from original documents

1793       John Simcoe travels the Humber, creates Town of York and Township of York

1793-1815    Napoleonic Wars, France & US  vs Britain/Canada.  Most British/Canadian combatants are First Nations

1796      John Dennis builds HMS Toronto at former Fort Douville site

1801       John Dennis deeded MD lands

1815      Village of Weston named but mostly on Etobicoke side of the Humber

1834       City of Toronto incorporated from unincorporated town of York (provincial decree)

1844 Louis Riel executed, English-French animosity in former North West company areas, French/Catholic/Metis displaced by Protestants from Upper Canada. 

1867 Canadian confederation,

1872 Dominion Lands Act removes indigenous and Metis land titles